From exclusion to integration: Monique Pasqualini’s role in developing the adapted baccalaureate examination in physical education (1966–1981)

Research papers
By Yacine Tajri, Jean Saint-Martin

This article focuses on the origins of a baccalaureate examination in physical education (PE) adapted for disabled pupils. It examines the work of a French PE teacher, Monique Pasqualini, who actively participated in developing adapted examinations for this group of pupils that had historically been excluded. Here, we present how she raised awareness of the inequalities present and subsequently mobilized different actors to develop a PE system inclusive of both disabled and able-bodied pupils. Using various sources, we show how her dedication and life’s work contributed to combating disabled pupils’ unequal access to the PE baccalaureate examination. Moreover, we will demonstrate that some conceptual and pedagogical shifts found fertile ground in her work with both medical and institutional authorities.

  • Physical education (PE)
  • exclusion
  • integration
  • disability
  • baccalaureate.
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