The aim of this study was to test the effects of the model when action observational (AO) and motor imagery (MI) are combined with actual practice, during physical education, in a basketball free throw task. Thirty-nine middle school students (Mage = 12.75) were randomly divided into 3 groups: Control, AOpair+MI and AOself+MI. They performed a pre-test (i.e., 10 free throws) then 4 training sessions consisting of performing 5 blocks of 2 free throws. Before each block, they watched a video clip unrelated to the skill involved in the protocol, then performed a countdown task (Control group) or watch the video of a peer model (AOpeer+MI group) or of oneself (AOself+MI) realizing a successful free throw and then imagined a successful free throw. Finally, they performed a post-test similar to the pre-test. The results show that the students benefiting from the video before the MI (AOself+MI and AOpeer+MI groups) performed better than those of the Control group during the post-test and that the students benefiting from the self-model had higher performance than students having video of a peer model. Results are discussed in the light of the literature and applied recommendations are offered to teachers, in particular with regard to the individualization of learning.
- motor imagery
- free throw